The following is a paper by H. Aspden published in Electronics and Wireless World, pp. 29-31 (January 1989).


Abstract: Reinterpretation of Newton's Third Law of Motion suggests that it depends upon an electronic action. Electronic interaction therefore explains the paradoxical anti-gravity properties of the force-precessed gyroscope.

Commentary: The author's theory is a theory which explains gravitation. It had not been imagined that 'anti-gravity' could be a serious scientific proposition, even when Professor Laithwaite in U.K. attracted media attention by demonstrating the anti-gravitational properties of a gyroscope machine at the Royal Institution. However, eventually, the author visited Professor Laithwaite and witnessed a demonstration which stirred one's curiosity. Then, later in 1988, the author had occasion to handle and examine a gyroscopic machine which Scotsman J. S. Strachan demonstrated at a conference in Canada at which the author was delivering his own paper on the 'free energy' theme.

On returning to U.K. the author wrote the subject paper, drawing attention to the very important fact that the law that action balances reaction is really a consequence of energy conservation principles and that, under certain special circumstances, the law can be breached. For example, energy conservation in a mechanical system during a collision between two bodies, seen microscopically as electrical charges, will, owing to a symmetry in their mutual electrical interaction during approach and separation, means that Newton's rule about relative velocities before and after impact applies. However, if circumstances involve a third body that asserts a charge affecting that interaction and so the collision, then the action-reaction balance as between the two primary bodies is upset.

This was the theme of the paper. It reported on the loss of weight evidenced by the Strachan machine. In opening the debate on this anti-gravity theme by the subject article, the author found that it aroused enormous interest, whereas the fundamentals of the aether, magnetism and the theory of gravitation, as such, were of little concern. However, as ever, the scientific establishment stood aloof from the scene, but the U.K. Institute of Physics did not hesitate to publish a very critical article on the subject once a Dutch physicist entered the debate. The attack, though specifically directed at this author and the subject paper, was presented as a general attack on the majority of professional physicists who, it was declared, did not understand the teachings of Isaac Newton. Readers may, therefore, be interested in the author's 'defence' which has been published by the Institute of Physics in their periodical 'Physics Education' under the title 'The Law of Perpetual Motion'. See abstract [1993c] in these Web pages.