## 1979a

The following is a paper by H. Aspden published in Lettere al Nuovo Cimento,
25, pp. 456-458 (1979).

### THE SPATIAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FOR COULOMB INTERACTION

**Abstract**: It is shown that the electric interaction between two
charges involves a mutual field energy which, as viewed from either charge, has
a field energy distribution that sums to zero over a range equal to the charge
separation distance, beyond which it diminishes progressively from a maximum
value as the inverse square of distance.

**Commentary**: Although the author had, long before 1979, established the
connection between the law of gravitation and the law of electrodynamics, there
remained the elusive mystery of deriving the Neumann potential by a causal
argument which did not rely on empirical data. The Neumann potential is an
expression for the primary energy action underlying the law of electrodynamics.
Somehow energy distributed in a field system set up by two interacting electric
charges can find a way of setting up a dynamic potential when the charges are in
motion. This means that the energy in the field is being redeployed. It is a
start to our understanding of the nature of the action if we know where that
energy might be in that field.

The subject paper is one of a series of three devoted to the Coulomb
interaction, the electrodynamic interaction [1980a] and the gravitational
interaction [1980a], respectively. The Neumann potential proved elusive for
several years, but, finally, it did succumb to the author's investigations
[1988a, 1995a]. It plays a key role in unifying the force of gravity with
electrodynamic law, as is evident from the discussion of 'time dilation' in
reference [1996a].

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