The following is a paper by H. Aspden published in Speculations in Science and Technology, v. 12, pp. 179-186 (1989).


Abstract: This paper shows how the 2.587 Gev graviton discussed in the first issue of Speculations in Science and Technology accounts for a supergraviton state of 95.18 GeV. This suggests a pairing of the 2.587 Gev graviton with the 92.6+/-1.7 Gev Zo boson in a resonant response in certain molecular systems. Technological implications are discussed with emphasis on the 'warm' superconductor phenomenon found in perovskite compositions having molecular masses that are integral multiples of 95.18 Gev/c2.

Commentary: 1988 was a year when the author decided to switch attention to technology and apply what had emerged from his theoretical research to more practical problems. The subject paper was written in September 1988. In the author's 1969 book 'Physics without Einstein', superconductivity was discussed on pp. 14-16. The theme there emerged from the argument that electrons in collision do not radiate energy. Thus the electron current will be sustained naturally and we must look to other causes for ohmic resistance loss resulting in atoms dissipating energy by generating photons. However, once the author had recognized that there could be electric regenerative processes at work by which interaction between electrons and heavy ions try to bring order into the thermodynamic chaos within a metal carrying current, a new picture of superconductivity emerged.

When warm superconductivity was discovered, the necessary clues were available and the subject paper was written to present the author's case. There had to be a 'supergraviton' form which could interact with groups of atoms in a molecule and allow them to take the impact of an electron by transferring the thrust to the centre of inertial mass as between that group of atoms and the supergravitons providing the inertial balance. In the perfect situation that action would occur in the universal inertial frame, so that there would be no energy-dissipating vibrations. The angular momentum imparted by the blow would be conserved until a reciprocal impact occur as magnetic induction effects operated to set up the necessary EMF and a new electron was driven forward to sustain the current. This process would transfer heat energy from the heavy atomic ion to the inductive system and superconductivity would result. The key to this action is the equality or near-equality of mass of the atomic group involved and the virtual mass of the 'supergraviton'.

The subject paper showed how a supergraviton was justified on the author's theory, where the action was in dense matter. The gravitational theory had, at this stage, developed to show how the 2.587 Gev gravitons were normally part of of three-charge cluster formed in association with a pair of tau leptons. The supergraviton is a higher mass form of such a cluster, where the 2.587 Gev gravitons develop an association with the parent of a Zo boson.

A reader wishing to study the paper should keep the following points in mind. Concerning the role of the omega(783) meson and the reason that four such mesons are produced by the decay of two tau leptons is connected with the subject discussed in the author's Hadronic Journal paper [1986j]. (See entry No. 9 in Table I and the last entry in Table II in that paper.) Two tau leptons of opposite polarity deploy their energy into the proton creation scenario and have just enough energy to create four (P:Q) systems, Q being the dimuon charge quantum mentioned in the Physics Today item [1984f]. These four neutral systems come under attack from the bombarding muon lepton field and duly shed a muon each to leave four omega(783) mesons. Then the graviton-tau-lepton clusters that are building the supergraviton allow a 2.587 Gev graviton to pair up with each of three omega(783) mesons and, by their annihilation processes, transfer just enough energy to compact the fourth omega(783) meson into the core element of the supergraviton.

The point of this energy transaction is that the resulting cluster of four particles has a mass, an energy and a charge space occupancy volume exactly compatible with the normal graviton-tau clusters that account for gravitation in normal matter of low density.

As the subject paper shows the result is a supergraviton having a mass energy of 95.18 Gev. This is 102 atomic mass units but the supergraviton has to deploy its dynamic balancing action over a group of atoms and its effective mass tends to be reduced to 101 atomic mass units in the warm superconductors. For example, as noted in the paper, Sr2CuO4 is a warm superconductor and it has 303 nucleons in each molecule. This means that three supergravitons are interacting with each molecule on a dynamic gravitational basis.

As a final comment, when the author wrote the paper in 1988 the Zo boson was said to have a measured mass-energy of 92.6+/-1.7 Gev. This energy is that applicable to the supergraviton less the gravitational effect of three 2.587 Gev graviton charge volumes, which is the energy of a single 2.587 Gev graviton. From this the author had derived 92.6 Gev as the theoretical Zo mass-energy. Later, however, it seems that a smaller mass-energy was adopted for the Zo boson in the tables of measurement data. In this regard, therefore, the author stresses that the source action from which the supergraviton is created is not the staged decay action we see as the Zo boson. The latter will form by a rapid mutual decay of two of the omega(783) mesons, owing to their opposite polarity, to leave a quasi-stable neutral complex which comprises the charged core component from which the supergraviton develops and a single omega(783) charged meson. This complex will have a mass-energy that is twice 0.783 Gev below the value 92.6 Gev, or 91.0 Gev and this is therefore identified as the Zo mass-energy as measured experimentally.